文章摘要
居涛,张天赐,王志陶,谢燕,郑超蕙,王克雄,王丁.抛石噪声特性及其对长江江豚的可能影响[J].声学技术,2017,(6):580~588
抛石噪声特性及其对长江江豚的可能影响
Characteristics of riprapping underwater noise and its possible impacts on the Yangtze finless porpoise
投稿时间:2017-02-27  修订日期:2017-05-05
DOI:10.16300/j.cnki.1000-3630.2017.06.014
中文关键词: 长江江豚  抛石噪声  航道整治  水下噪声
英文关键词: Yangtze finless porpoise  riprapping noise  waterway adjustment activity  underwater noise
基金项目:交通运输部委托专项课题(Y649051101、Y691162102)
作者单位E-mail
居涛 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 湖北武汉 430072
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
张天赐 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 湖北武汉 430072
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
王志陶 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 湖北武汉 430072  
谢燕 交通运输部规划研究院, 北京 100028  
郑超蕙 交通运输部规划研究院, 北京 100028  
王克雄 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 湖北武汉 430072  
王丁 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 湖北武汉 430072 wangd@ihb.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为保障长江通航能力,抛石作为航道整治的一种常用方式而被频繁实施。为了探索抛石产生的水下噪声特征及其对长江江豚的潜在影响,采集了4种不同类型的抛石施工产生的水下噪声,分析声信号的声压级、功率谱密度等。结果表明,抛石噪声的声源级均大于151 dB;能量主要集中于中低频(<20 kHz)部分;20~100 kHz频率范围的声压级均大于45 dB;记录到的1/3倍频程声压级在绝大多数频率处都高于长江江豚听觉阈值,说明抛石噪声可被江豚感知。结合长江江豚声信号及听觉特性,认为抛石噪声可能会压缩长江江豚的自然栖息地;对幼年长江江豚造成伤害的可能性较大;对长江江豚的听觉可能造成不利影响。最后基于分析结果提出了缓解方案。
英文摘要:
      In order to strengthen the shipping capacity of the Yangtze River, riprapping is frequently conducted as a common way of waterway adjustment activities. To study the riprapping noise and its potential impacts on the Yangtze finless porpoise, the underwater noises by four types of riprapping were collected and their sound pressure levels (SPL) and power spectral densities were analyzed. The results show that the source levels of riprapping noise are greater than 151 dB re 1 μPa with majority energy concentrating in low frequency components (< 20 kHz). Root-mean-square SPL of the frequency range between 20 Hz and 100 kHz are higher than 45 dB re 1 μPa, and the one-third octave SPLs are higher than majority of the hearing threshold of the porpoise, indicating that the riprapping noise can be sensed by the porpoise. Considering the porpoise's vocalization and hearing characteristics, it is concludud that the riprapping noise might degrade the natural habitat of the porpoise, and has greater negative effects on the porpoise in infancy, however, less likely damage the auditory of the porpoise. Finally, mitigation measures are proposed based on the analysis.
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