文章摘要
张珍,张圆.交通噪声对儿童影响的研究综述[J].声学技术,2018,37(4):354~361
交通噪声对儿童影响的研究综述
The effect of traffic noise on children: a review
投稿时间:2017-08-28  修订日期:2017-12-18
DOI:10.16300/j.cnki.1000-3630.2018.04.011
中文关键词: 交通噪声  儿童  影响  研究存在的问题与对策
英文关键词: traffic noise  children  effect  existing problems and countermeasures
基金项目:辽宁省自然科学基金指导计划项目(201602635)
作者单位E-mail
张珍 沈阳建筑大学建筑生态物理技术与评价辽宁省重点实验室, 辽宁沈阳 110000  
张圆 沈阳建筑大学建筑生态物理技术与评价辽宁省重点实验室, 辽宁沈阳 110000 jzdxzhy@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      作为城市最普遍存在的环境噪声,交通噪声对儿童的健康成长会产生负面影响。通过对13个国家67项实证研究的文献分析,发现交通噪声对儿童影响主要表现在以下三个方面:在身体健康方面,交通噪声影响儿童的听觉、睡眠和心率血压等;在认知能力方面,影响儿童的阅读表现、记忆力、数学能力、注意力等,但目前对各种认知能力的研究深入程度不一;在心理健康方面,交通噪声引发儿童烦恼、心理压力和行为问题。通过对文献的梳理与总结,发现目前的研究存在如下问题:评价指标各异,难以形成统一结论;相关因素众多,混淆变量干扰研究结论;研究范式不同,研究结论存在差异。基于问题提出相关对策:构建标准化指标体系与规范化研究范式;深入运用社会学方法,明确社会环境因素对儿童的影响;开展交通噪声与交通空气污染综合影响的研究,厘清后者对结论的混淆。
英文摘要:
      As the most common environmental noise in urban areas, traffic noise has a negative impact on the healthy growth of children. In this paper, 65 studies in 13 countries are analyzed. It is found that the effects of long term exposure to traffic noise on children is mainly in three aspects:firstly affecting children's physical health, e.g. impairing children's hearing, disturbing their sleep and influencing their heart rate and blood pressure; secondly affecting their cognitive abilities, such as children's reading performance, memory, mathematics ability and attention; and thirdly affecting children's mental health to result in children's annoyance, pressure and behavior problems. Literature review finds that the following problems exist in current studies:1. different evaluation indexes and research paradigms lead to differences in research conclusions and 2. too many related factors interfere the research conclusion. Aiming at these problems, some countermeasures are put forward:the standardized index system and research paradigm should be constructed, and the sociological methods should be deeply used to make clear the impact of social environment on children. Moreover, a comprehensive study of traffic noise and traffic related air pollution should be conducted to clarify the confusion of traffic related air pollution to the conclusion.
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