文章摘要
查雪琴,吕豪.教室声学环境的分析及改善[J].声学技术,2020,39(4):461~467
教室声学环境的分析及改善
Analysis and improvement of classroom acoustic environment
投稿时间:2019-04-12  修订日期:2019-05-28
DOI:10.16300/j.cnki.1000-3630.2020.04.014
中文关键词: 教室声环境  低频噪声  掩蔽效应  哈斯效应
英文关键词: classroom acoustics  low-frequency noise  masking effect  Haas effect
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
查雪琴 室内声学公益基金会, 德国柏林 14129  
吕豪 深圳可朗声科技有限公司, 广东深圳 518000 lvhao2000@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      对于教室内声学环境的要求,国内及国外一些有关规范都只停留在中频段(500~1 000 Hz)。这样的要求是不够的。在这样的声学环境中,教师健康和学生听课效果均受到影响。文章分析了达到优良室内声学环境的几个重要因素,着重减低低频噪声和控制低频混响时间。利用简单的吸声构件,得到几乎平直的混响时间频率特性。叙述了"掩蔽效应"对中、高频的影响并叙述了"哈斯效应"及在声学处理时要利用有利反射声的注意事项。为得到室内优良的音质环境,提出建议并给出工程实践结果的实例。
英文摘要:
      Most domestic and foreign acoustics standards and recommendations for the requirement of classroom acoustic environment focus on the mid-frequency range (500~1 000 Hz). The corresponding designs and installations, however, cause tremendous loads on both teachers and students. Experience from classrooms with optimized environments recommends specific absorption measures yielding an almost flat frequency characteristic of the reverberation time. The aim must be to help early lateral reflections from the room's boundaries to support the direct sound from a source according to ‘Haas effect’ and thus reduce ‘masking’ of the important higher frequencies by irrelevant lower frequencies. Some practical examples are presented which definitely support speech intelligibility with an amazing reduction of noise in all kinds of conversations in a room.
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