文章摘要
刘李娜,何颖,黄煜,张建,李聪聪.一类机械噪声对全身振动不舒适度的正负掩蔽效应[J].声学技术,2021,40(5):652~656
一类机械噪声对全身振动不舒适度的正负掩蔽效应
The positive and negative masking effects of a typical mechanical noise on vibration-induced discomfort
投稿时间:2020-10-23  修订日期:2020-12-17
DOI:10.16300/j.cnki.1000-3630.2021.05.010
中文关键词: 噪声和振动  掩蔽效应  主观反应
英文关键词: noise and vibration  masking effects  subjective response
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(52072242)、上海市自然科学基金资助项目(19ZR1424500)。
作者单位E-mail
刘李娜 中国人民解放军海军特色医学中心, 上海 200433  
何颖 中国人民解放军海军特色医学中心, 上海 200433  
黄煜 上海交通大学机械与动力工程学院机械系统与振动国家重点实验室, 振动、冲击、噪声研究所, 上海 200240  
张建 中国人民解放军海军特色医学中心, 上海 200433 ywjzjk@163.com 
李聪聪 海军青岛特勤疗养中心, 山东青岛 266072  
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中文摘要:
      船舶、车辆或飞机舱室内往往同时存在振动和噪声。振动会引起人体不舒适,而噪声可能会增大或减小振动引起的不适感。通过对比实验,研究了无声波激励(60dB (A)背景噪声)以及舱室内一类典型机械振动噪声激励(幅值为70、85 dB (A))下,低频随机垂直全身振动(加速度均方根值为1.5、2.0和2.5 m·s-2)引起的不舒适度。每组振动和声波持续时间为2 min,12名被试每隔30 s判断振动不舒适度的幅值。结果表明,相对于无声波激励的条件,幅值为70dB (A)的噪声增大了振动不舒适度,而85 dB (A)的噪声却减小了振动不舒适度。该现象说明噪声对振动引起的不适感具有抑制或者增强的“正负”掩蔽作用:较高幅值的噪声对振动不舒适度具有正掩蔽(抑制)效应,较低幅值的噪声对振动不舒适度具有负掩蔽(增强)效应。该掩蔽效应随人体暴露于噪声和振动环境中的时长增大而逐渐减小。
英文摘要:
      The vibration and noise usually occur simultaneously inside the cabin of ship, vehicle and airplane. The vibration causes human body discomfort, while the noise can increase or reduce such uncomfortable feeling. The influence of a typical cabin mechanical noise on the subjective judgment of the discomfort magnitude caused by whole-body vertical vibration is investigated. The low frequency random vibration at three accelerations (RMS is 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m·s-2) combined respectively with the mechanical noise of 70 and 85 dB(A) or only the background noise of 60 dB(A) are applied to the subjects over two minutes for tests. Each of the 12 subjects gave an estimate of the discomfort magnitude caused by vibrations every 30 s. The results show that the discomfort magnitude increases in 70 dB(A) noise and decreases in 85 dB(A) noise, which indicates the double-way masking effects of noise on the discomfort perception caused by vibration:the positive masking (attenuation) effect appears at relatively high noise level and negative masking (enhancement) at relative low noise level; With the increase of the exposure time of human body in the vibration and noise environment, the masking effect of noise on the vibration-induced discomfort decreases.
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