文章摘要
张玫,康健.城市公共开敞空间中的声景语义细分法分析的跨文化研究[J].声学技术,2006,(6):523~532
城市公共开敞空间中的声景语义细分法分析的跨文化研究
A cross-cultural semantic differential analysis of the soundscape in urban open public spaces
投稿时间:2006-08-31  修订日期:2006-10-31
DOI:
中文关键词: 声景  城市  公共开敞空间  语义细分法  文化
英文关键词: soundscape  urban  open public space  semantic differential analysis  culture
基金项目:
作者单位
张玫 英国谢菲尔德大学东亚学院
英国谢菲尔德大学建筑学院 
康健 英国谢菲尔德大学东亚学院
英国谢菲尔德大学建筑学院 
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中文摘要:
      本文通过一系列问卷调查,运用语义细分法,对两个在英国谢菲尔德、两个在中国北京的四个城市公共开敞空间进行了比较研究,旨在找出城市公共开敞空间中声景的决定因子。研究发现,尽管城市公共开敞空间中的声景评价很复杂,但仍有四个主要的决定性因子:放松、交流、空间性和动态性。这四个因子在中英的案例中很相似,不过就因子的顺序及各因子所包含的评价指标而言,两国之间尚有一定差异。有趣的是,这些因子涵盖了设计城市公共开敞空间声学的主要层面:功能(放松和交流)、空间和时间。不过,这四个因子仅覆盖了总变量的约50-60%,由此显示了城市公共开敞空间中声景的复杂特点。对不同季节及不同广场的数据进行的分析表明,上述四个决定因子仍然明显。另外,从对英国和中国广场的声景评价中均可看出,即使人们在公共开敞空间中感到很吵闹,而声舒适程度仍然可能较高,除非广场由高声级的、令人不快的声音所主导,例如交通噪声。
英文摘要:
      A series of comparative field surveys were carried out in four urban open public spaces, two in Sheffield, UK and two in Beijing, China. The semantic differential method was applied to determine key factors that characterise the soundscape. It has been shown that whilst the soundscape evaluation in urban open public spaces is rather complicated, it is still possible to identify several major factors, including relaxation, communication, spatiality and dynamics, and these factors are common for both UK and Chinese situations, although in terms of the order of factors and the indices included in each factor there are differences between the two countries. It is interesting that these four factors cover the main facets of designing the acoustics of an urban open public space: function (relaxation and communication), space, and time, although the typical coverage of the total variance is only about 50-60%, indicating the complicated features of soundscapes of urban open public spaces. Analyses based on individual seasonal periods and individual case study sites show that the above four factors can still be identified. The general soundscape evaluation shows that both in the UK and China, although people may feel the sound environment is noisy/loud, they could still find it acoustically comfortable, unless a site is dominated by high level unpleasant sounds such as traffic.
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